The Riveting Story of the Trans-Siberian Railway

The Riveting Story of the Trans-Siberian Railway

The fabled Trans-Siberian Railway rolls briskly across seven time zones and 5,772 miles of taiga, steppe and mountain, pausing along the way in places that bring the traveler face to face with the fascinating cultures of Russia.

Sprawling rivers, dense taiga forest, mile upon mile of swampy permafrost, subzero temperatures in winter, swarms of bloodthirsty mosquitoes in summer, and large carnivorous animals, including wolves, bears, and, in the east, the terrifying Siberian tiger, were some of the obstacles that had to be overcome to create the continent-spanning Trans-Siberian Railway.

As one of the longest rail lines on earth, it’s no surprise that this legendary railway has an equally legendary history:

Follow along with the riveting historical rundown with a free downloadable map showing
highlights of the Trans-Siberian’s story.


Follow along with the riveting history of the  Trans-Siberian Railway with our full color PDF.


The Beginning

Nicholas II (Romanov) (Russia) Photo: not needed, from Greg / Wikipedia

Czar Nicholas II

Czar Alexander III, after much debate, announced in 1886 his intention to build a railway from one end of the country to the other. Five years later, in 1891, the heir to the throne, soon-to-be-Czar Nicholas II, laid the cornerstone of the railway station in Vladivostok on the far east coast of the country, and emptied the first wheelbarrow of dirt onto the proposed tracks. Simultaneously, work began eastward from Chelyabinsk in the Urals; the line from Moscow arrived there in 1892.

Built in sections, the railway slowly took shape, with crews of conscripts and gulag prisoners swelling the ranks of the railway workers. By 1900, a traveler could board the train in Moscow, ride to Irkutsk in the middle of Siberia, take an ice-breaker ferry across Lake Baikal, re-board the train to Sretensk, and then board a steamer for the cruise up the Shilka and Amur Rivers to Khabarovsk.

(click on photo to view larger version)

Vladivostok, Russia

The Trans-Siberian Railway began at its endpoint in Vladivostok, Russia
Photo: Martin Klimenta

Spacious luxury: The Imperial Suite is a generous 120 square feet, with two picture windows Photo credit: Golden Eagle Luxury Trains

As luxurious as the first rail cars presented at the 1900 World’s Fair, this modern compartment is the Golden Eagle train’s Imperial Suite

World’s Fair

The railway was celebrated at the 1900 Paris World’s Fair, the Exposition Universelle, with an exhibition that included luxurious rail carriages, such as a salon decorated in Louis XVI style with silk armchairs, a sofa and a piano; and a traveling Orthodox chapel car. The plush rail cars drew the attention of some of the 50 million fairgoers, and foreign travelers began to ride the Trans-Siberian, though the reality of the trip was far removed from the luxury presented at the fair.

Alexander III had ordered the cheapest possible construction of the great railway line, and reconstruction of parts of the line became necessary almost immediately. Lightweight and low-quality iron had been used for the rails, which meant that the cars could not carry much weight; it also meant that everyone on board was in for an extremely slow and bumpy ride, marred by frequent breakdowns and lengthy delays.

Lake Baikal, Russia

The Circumbaikal Railway, along Lake Baikal, Russia

The Baikal Saga

A major challenge facing the Russian railroad builders was what to do about Lake Baikal, sitting squarely across Siberia’s midsection. 395 miles long, 49 miles wide, and shaped like a banana bisecting the proposed line, it had to be either crossed or circumvented.

The government decided that it would be so costly and time-consuming to build a rail line around the rocky southern end of the lake that they devised a temporary fix, using ferries to transport the train cars and their passengers across the lake to meet up with the next leg of the railway.

Two ice-breaker ferries were commissioned and built in England, then disassembled and shipped to the lake, where they were painstakingly reassembled, piece by piece – 6,900 of them for the first, the SS Baikal. On its mid deck Baikal had three sets of tracks that held 24 carriages and a locomotive. There were enough cabins for 200 passengers to stay out of the weather during the four-hour crossing. The Angara was a bit smaller, meant for goods and passengers only.

Ice-breaker Angara on Lake Baikal

Ice-breaker Angara on Lake Baikal
Photo: Vladimir Kvashnin

In the long run this solution proved problematic; even the massive ice-breaker ferries could not always manage the trip during the cold winters, when the ice could measure up to five feet thick. At those times, passengers and freight had to be hauled across the ice on sledges, while draft animals pulled the train cars on rail lines laid across the frozen lake.

Emerging from one of the Circumbaikal Railway’s 33 tunnels

Circumbaikal Railway

Baikal’s southern shore consists of rocky cliffs that plunge into the lake, and the engineers knew a rail line here would be a major undertaking. They began in 1899 and proceeded slowly and laboriously.

As the Russo-Japanese war heated up, the czar hired Italian and Armenian master stonemasons and ordered 10,00 laborers to the site, where they eventually dug more than 30 tunnels through the rock, and built some 300 bridges and viaducts. Every two miles of track required a wagonload of explosives. The beautifully built bridges and tunnels are still in use today.

When the line was finally completed in 1905, the train had to slow to negotiate the twists, turns and tunnels of this complicated and beautiful leg of the route. It was used for regular train traffic up until 1950, when the Irkutsk-Kultuk shortcut was finished. Today the train runs on this track solely for the delight of sightseers.

Harbin's St. Sophia Cathedral, built after the completion of the Trans-Siberian Railway.Photo Credit: Devin Connolly

Harbin’s St. Sophia Cathedral, built after the completion of the Trans-Siberian Railway.
Photo: Devin Connolly

Across China on the Manchurian Railway

Engineers plotting the route beyond Baikal initially wanted to build the far eastern leg along the Amur River (the border with China), but, like a route around the lake, it was deemed too expensive and difficult. So the line took a shortcut across Manchuria in northeast China to link Chita to Vladivostok via the Chinese city of Harbin. Called the Manchurian Railway, this part of the rail line was completed in 1901, and traffic from one side of Russia to the other commenced.

Front or back of the train on the Circumbaikal Route – equally stunning views Photo credit: Helen Holter

A view of Lake Baikal from the Circumbaikal Route 
Photo: Helen Holter


The story of the piecemeal development of the Trans-Siberian is bound up with that of the Russo-Japanese War. Hostilities flared into outright war in 1904, and sped up the completion of the Circumbaikal line; the train ferries significantly slowed the delivery of arms and equipment to the front.

The war also demonstrated that the Manchurian Railway was vulnerable to attack, and engineers scrambled for ways to bypass China.

Khabarovsk, in Siberia, was built on three hills overlooking the Amur River and has a long and pleasant waterfront. Photo credit: Martin Klimenta

Khabarovsk, in Siberia, was built on three hills overlooking the wide Amur River 
Photo credit: Martin Klimenta

Last Link

After Russia lost its war with Japan in 1905, the Trans-Siberian engineers went back to the drawing board and drew up plans for the Amur Railway, the line that had been pronounced too costly and challenging to build. Construction began in 1908 amid the same difficulties that had plagued the earlier work – a critical lack of laborers to brave the virgin taiga, rivers, swamps, wild animals, permafrost, and hordes of huge mosquitoes.

The last link in the Amur Railway, the 8,500-foot Amur River Bridge at the city of Khabarovsk, was delayed when a German cruiser in the Indian Ocean sank the ship carrying the last two of its metal spans.

The train goes with the flow of the Khabarovsk River in Siberia. Photo Credit: Martin Klimenta

The Trans-Siberian Railway heads towards the Amur Bridge in Khabarovsk (Siberia)
Photo Credit: Martin Klimenta

Finally, on October 5, 1916, the bridge was officially opened and the Trans-Siberian ran from Moscow to Vladivostok – exclusively on Russian soil. Just in time for WWI, revolution, and civil war.

It was only in 1931 that the Soviets reopened the route to foreigners.

Many Trans-Siberian Railway adventures begin, or end, at this marker in Vladivostok

This is the eastern-most end point of the Trans-Siberian railway in Vladivostok. Many Trans-Siberian Railway adventures begin, or end, at this marker in Vladivostok.

The train rounds the bend on the BAM route.

The train rounds the bend on the BAM route

But Wait – There’s More! The BAM Line

Joseph Stalin ordered the building of the BAM (Baikal Amur Magistral). Worried that the Trans-Siberian Railway tracks along the Chinese border were still at risk of being attacked, he had his engineers plot out an alternate route that took off north of Baikal about two thirds of the way between Moscow and Vladivostok, and skirted the remote north shore of the great lake.

The project began in 1939, using gulag labor, but languished after the ready supply of prisoners dried up at the dictator’s death. The last segment of the line, the nearly 10-mile Severomuysk tunnel, was finally completed in 2004, the end of the long story of the huge and heroic undertaking that was the building of the legendary Trans-Siberian Railway.

This monument in Severobaikalsk, Russia, honors the construction of the longest tunnel on the BAM line. Photo Credit: Vladimir Kvashnin

This monument in Severobaikalsk, Russia, honors the construction of the longest tunnel on the BAM line
Photo Credit: Vladimir Kvashnin

Russia and the U.S. – Dueling Railroads

Rail aficionados may find it interesting to compare the building of the Trans-Siberian to the building of the U.S. Transcontinental Railroad. The U.S.completed its railway first, but it was only half as long as the Trans-Siberian.

Trans-Siberian: Construction began in 1891, first iteration finished in 1901.

U.S. Transcontinental Railroad: Opened in 1869, 22 years before the Tran-Siberian was begun.

Trans-Siberian: Wide Siberian rivers, permafrost, impenetrable forest, subzero temperatures, and wild animals confronted rail builders.

U.S. Transcontinental: Vast prairie, desert, the Rocky Mountains, and angry tribes of indigenous people stood in the way of the railroad.

Trans-Siberian: Thousands of gulag prisoners were forced to join the expert overseers to build the rail bed.

U.S. Transcontinental: Much of the labor, especially dynamite blasting, was supplied by poorly paid emigrant Chinese men.

Trans-Siberian: 6,000 miles total, crossing 7 time zones.

U.S. Transcontinental: 3,000 miles total, crossing 4 time zones.


Trans-Siberian Express

The Golden Eagle Trans-Siberian Express rounding the bend at Lake Baikal
Photo: Douglas Grimes

Travel with MIR on the Trans-Siberian Railway

You can live this rail history on one of our many rail journeys along the Trans-Siberian. We offer a wide range of itineraries and rail options, from deluxe and luxury rail journeys by private train to an adventurous small group tour on regularly scheduled trains with locals.



  • A personalized Trans-Siberian Railway Trip

We can also create a hand-crafted custom, private journey that includes your choice of destinations and activities.


Why MIR?

MIR has more than 30 years of Trans-Siberian Railway travel experience, with affiliate offices in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Irkutsk and Ulan Ude offering on-the-ground support. Our full service, dedication, commitment to quality and destination expertise have twice earned us a place on National Geographic Adventure’s list of “Best Adventure Travel Companies on Earth.”

MIR has quality you can trust with personalized travel planning from start to finish. Patricia Schultz, author of 1,000 Places to See Before You Die, recommends MIR as the company to talk to about a Trans-Siberian journey. 

Contact MIR today at or 1-800-424-7289.


Top photo: Bridges and tunnels on the Trans-Siberian Railway. Photo: Bill Adams 

PUBLISHED: April 25, 2018

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3 thoughts on “The Riveting Story of the Trans-Siberian Railway

  • We went last year and it was the trip of a lifetime!

  • Dorothy J Terrill

    Sounds exciting. In 1995 I took the Trans-Siberian from Moscow to Ulaanbatar and 6 days later on to Beijing. It was full of adventure. I was with my son who had been employed in the consulate of the US embassy in Moscow so he is fluent in Russian. A big help as he bought food from peasant ladies along the track when the train stopped–no dining car for the first 2 or 3 days. It was February so everything was frozen solid. Memories of a great adventure.

  • Beverley Auerbach

    Great article! Thanks for sending. Do you know about the building of the trans Canada railroad? Completed in 1867, it was a precondition of the founding of Canada, the joining of eastern and western provinces.